Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is vision threatening problem in diabetic patients and patient may suffers from complete blindness if untreated. Hemorrhages and Microaneurysms (HMAs) are the early signs that appear in retina at initial stages of DR. Early diagnosis of both Hemorrhages and Microaneurysms (HMAs) is crucial to prevent blindness. Continuous increase of diabetic cases in all over the world including Pakistan is limiting the typical manual screening capabilities. There is an urgent need of a robust automatic computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system using digital fundus images for the screening and monitoring of various types of DR to save many sight years of diabetic patients. Automatic detection of DR, especially detection of its early signs (HMAs), is still an open issue. Research work, described in this Book, is focusing on the analysis of various texture features of Region of Interests (ROIs) for the detection of HMAs using state-of-the-art texture descriptors Local Binary Pattern (LBP), which are independent of uneven illumination present in fundus images. This book would be helpful for the students & researchers working in the fields of medical and digital image processing.